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Numerical dating of Clovis sites has allowed comparison of Clovis dates with dates of other archaeosites throughout the Americas, and of the opening of the ice-free corridor. The Clovis site was host to a lithic technology characterized by spear points with an indentation, or flute, where the point was attached to the shaft. Littoral marine organisms colonized shorelines as ocean water replaced glacial meltwater. A coastal east Asian source population is integral to the marine migration hypothesis. On the other hand, there is evidence of marine technologies found in the hills of the Channel Islands of California , circa 10, BCE. A lithic complex characterized by the Clovis Point technology was subsequently identified over much of North America and in South America. Schematic illustration of maternal mtDNA gene-flow in and out of Beringia long chronology, single source model. It specifically re-evaluates the original report on the Hoya Negro skeleton which supported the RGF model, the authors disagreed with the original conclusion which suggested that the skull shape did not match those of modern Native Americans, arguing that the "skull falls into a subregion of the morphospace occupied by both Paleoamericans and some modern Native Americans. Submergence of the Beringian land bridge with post-Last Glacial Maximum LGM rise in eustatic sea level During the Wisconsin Glaciation , varying portions of the Earth's water were stored as glacier ice. Studies focussing on craniofacial morphology have argued that Paleoamerican remains have "been described as much closer to African and Australo-Melanesians populations than to the modern series of Native Americans", suggesting two entries into the Americas, an early one occurring before a distinctive East Asian morphology developed referred to in the paper as the "Two Components Model". D4h3a has been identified as a clade associated with coastal migration. The Monte Verde site of Southern Chile has been dated at The lowered sea level, and an isostatic bulge equilibrated with the depression beneath the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, exposed the continental shelf to form a coastal plain.
While not exclusive of land-based migrations, the Pacific 'coastal migration theory' helps explain how early colonists reached areas extremely distant from the Bering Strait region, including sites such as Monte Verde in southern Chile and Taima-Taima in western Venezuela. The retreat was accelerated as sea levels rose and floated glacial termini. Anzick-1 is less closely related to present North American Native American populations. A DNA analysis of plants and animals suggest a coastal route was feasible. The Monte Verde site of Southern Chile has been dated at They have a distribution ranging from coastal east Asia to the Pacific coast of South America. The data indicate that Anzick-1 is from a population directly ancestral to present South American and Central American Native American populations. For example, the broad geographic range of Haplogroup X has been interpreted as allowing the possibility of a western Eurasian, or even a European source population for Native Americans, as in the Solutrean hypothesis , or suggesting a pre-Last Glacial Maximum migration into the Americas. Wave action can destroy site structures and scatter artifacts along a prograding shoreline. Opening of an ice-free corridor did not occur until after 13k to 12k cal years BP. Additionally, Pacific coastal conditions tend to be unstable due to steep unstable terrain, earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes. Littoral marine organisms colonized shorelines as ocean water replaced glacial meltwater. The environment during the latest Pleistocene[ edit ] For an introduction to the radiocarbon dating techniques used by archaeologists and geologists, see radiocarbon dating. Recent radiocarbon dating of Clovis sites has yielded ages of Its parent lineage, Subhaplotype D4h, is believed to have emerged in east Asia, rather than Siberia, around 20k cal years BP. Coastlines are unusually productive environments because they provide humans with access to a diverse array of plants and animals from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Y-DNA among South American and Alaskan natives[ edit ] The micro-satellite diversity and distribution of a Y lineage specific to South America suggest that certain Amerindian populations became isolated after the initial colonization of their regions. In a article in the Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, Erlandson and his colleagues proposed a corollary to the coastal migration theory—the "kelp highway hypothesis"—arguing that productive kelp forests supporting similar suites of plants and animals would have existed near the end of the Pleistocene around much of the Pacific Rim from Japan to Beringia, the Pacific Northwest, and California, as well as the Andean Coast of South America. Arguments based on molecular genetics have in the main, according to the authors, accepted a single migration from Asia with a probable pause in Berengia, plus later bi-directional gene flow. Strategies for finding earliest migration sites include identifying potential sites on submerged paleoshorelines, seeking sites in areas uplifted either by tectonics or isostatic rebound, and looking for riverine sites in areas that may have attracted coastal migrants. Estimates of a fully ice-free coast range between 16k  and 15k  cal years BP. A third model, the "Recurrent Gene Flow" [RGF] model, attempts to reconcile the two, arguing that circumarctic gene flow after the initial migration could account for morphological changes. Coastal migration Americas Pacific models propose that people first reached the Americas via water travel, following coastlines from northeast Asia into the Americas. Genetic studies of Austronesian peoples and Migration and dispersion of Austronesian peoples to the Americas supported by coconut and sweet potato population genetics The boat-builders from Southeast Asia Austronesian peoples may have been one of the earliest groups to reach the shores of North America. The Clovis site was host to a lithic technology characterized by spear points with an indentation, or flute, where the point was attached to the shaft.
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